Dictionary Meaning and Definition on 'Terpene'
n : an unsaturated hydrocarbon obtained from plants
- Terpene \Ter"pene\, n. [See Turpentine.] (Chem.)
Any one of a series of isomeric hydrocarbons of pleasant
aromatic odor, occurring especially in coniferous plants and
represented by oil of turpentine, but including also certain
hydrocarbons found in some essential oils.
- Turpentine \Tur"pen*tine\, n. [F. t['e]r['e]bentine, OF. also
turbentine; cf. Pr. terebentina, terbentina, It. terebentina,
trementina; fr. L. terebinthinus of the turpentine tree, from
terebinthus the turpentine tree. Gr. ?, ?. See Terebinth.]
A semifluid or fluid oleoresin, primarily the exudation of
the terebinth, or turpentine, tree (Pistacia Terebinthus),
a native of the Mediterranean region. It is also obtained
from many coniferous trees, especially species of pine,
larch, and fir.
Note: There are many varieties of turpentine. Chian
turpentine is produced in small quantities by the
turpentine tree (Pistacia Terebinthus). Venice,
Swiss, or larch turpentine, is obtained from Larix
Europ[ae]a}. It is a clear, colorless balsam, having a
tendency to solidify. Canada turpentine, or Canada
balsam, is the purest of all the pine turpentines (see
under Balsam). The Carpathian and Hungarian varieties
are derived from Pinus Cembra and Pinus Mugho.
Carolina turpentine, the most abundant kind, comes from
the long-leaved pine (Pinus palustris). Strasburg
turpentine is from the silver fir (Abies pectinata).
Oil of turpentine (Chem.), a colorless oily hydrocarbon,
C10H16, of a pleasant aromatic odor, obtained by the
distillation of crude turpentine. It is used in making
varnishes, in medicine, etc. It is the type of the
terpenes and is related to cymene. Called also
terebenthene, terpene, etc.
Turpentine moth (Zo["o]l.), any one of several species of
small tortricid moths whose larv[ae] eat the tender shoots
of pine and fir trees, causing an exudation of pitch or
Turpentine tree (Bot.), the terebinth tree, the original
source of turpentine. See Turpentine, above.
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Wikipedia Meaning and Definition on 'Terpene'
Terpenes (pronounced /ˈtɜrpiːn/ TUR-peen) are a large and varied class of organic compounds, produced primarily by a wide variety of plants, particularly conifers, though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeterium.
They are the major components of resin, and of turpentine produced from resin. The name "terpene" is derived from the word "turpentine". In addition to their roles as end-products in many organisms, terpenes are major biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature. Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene.
When terpenes are modified chemically, such as by oxidation or rearrangement of the carbon skeleton, the resulting compounds are generally referred to as terpenoids. Some authors will use the term terpene to include all terpenoids. Terpenoids are also known as isoprenoids.[See more about Terpene at Dictionary 3.0 Encyclopedia]